The known facts of human evolution are interpreted as evidence for the theory that, for six million years, our ancestral human species lived within a collective mentality intrinsic to their sole adaptation of coordinating their divided labor, i.e., teamwork.

EARLY HUMANS (6→2.5 million years ago)

GENUS HOMO (2.5 million→300,000 years ago)

HOMO SAPIENS (300,000 years ago→present)


1. Prado-Martinez J et al. (2013) “Great ape genetic diversity and population history” Nature 499: 471–475

2. Berger L, Hawks J (2017) Almost Human: The Astonishing Tale of Homo naledi and the Discovery That Changed Our Human Story Washington: National Geographic

3. Boehm C (2012) Moral Origins, The Evolution of Virtue, Altruism, and Shame New York: Basic Books

4. Lordkipanidze D et al. (2006) “A fourth hominin skull from Dmanisi, Georgia.” Anatomical Record 288A: 1146–1157

5. Pitts M, Roberts, M (1998) Fairweather Eden: Life half a million years ago as revealed by excavations at Boxgrove New York: Fromm International.

6. Dunbar RIM, Shultz, S (2007) “Evolution in the Social Brain.” Science 317:1344–1347

7. Tomasello M (2019) Becoming Human: A Theory of Ontogeny Cambridge: Harvard U Press

Ca. 500,000 years ago at Boxgrove, England (Individual would not be chipping hand ax alone.)

Tags: , , , ,