Honey Bee Democracy
THOMAS SEELEY

In Thomas Seeley’s Honey Bee Democracy, He deduced the following “lessons” from the bees that he has been studying for his entire career. He follows these rules in the running of his department at Cornell University. These rules utilizes the advantages many people over one.

Lesson 1. Compose the Decision-Making Group of Individuals with shared Interests and Mutual Respect.

Lesson 2. Minimize the Leader’s Influence on the Group’s Thinking.

Lesson 3. Seek Diverse Solutions to the Problem.

Lesson 4. Aggregate the Group’s Knowledge Through Debate.

Lesson 5. Use Quorum Responses for Cohesion, Accuracy, and Speed.

 

Philosopher Paul Grice
PAUL GRICE

Philosopher Paul Grice (1975) simplifies the issue of meaning in language with a general set of rules, or “maxims,” for conversation when language is “on duty,” that is, when it is not, as Lugwig Wittgenstein would say, “on vacation” playing games.

Overall: Be cooperative. Be informative
I. Maxims of Quantity:
1. Make your contributions as informative as is required.
2. Do not make your contributions more informative than required.

II. Maxims of Quality:

Supermaxim: Try to make your contribution one that is true.
1. Do not say what you believe is false.
2. Do not say that for which you lack evidence.
III. Maxims of Relation: Be relevant.
IV. Maxims of manner: Supermaxim: Be perspicuous.
1. Avoid obscurity of expression.
2. Avoid ambiguity.
3. Be brief.
4. Be orderly.

 

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